Editorial Style


  • Most period designations are lowercased: late antiquity, ancient Greece, imperial Rome
  • Cultural periods recognized by archaeologists based on characteristic technology or typology are capitalized: Iron Age, Orientalizing period, Late Antique period
  • The terms “classical” and “archaic” are capitalized only when used with “period” (e.g., Classical period) or with a specific division of a cultural period (e.g., Late Classical literature) or when the meaning can be misconstrued: Late Archaic art, Early Classical polis, classical vase painting, archaic Greek pottery
  • The names of specific buildings, monuments, parts of sites, and artifact collections/groups are capitalized. The generic form is lowercased: the East Gymnasium/the gymnasium; the Athenian Agora/ the agora; Roman Forum/the forum; Treasury of Athens/Athenian treasury

Foreign Terms and Phrases

Isolated words in a foreign language that are likely to be unfamiliar to readers should be italicized throughout the text. Familiar words and phrases in a foreign language should be set in roman type unless there is a risk of confusion with an identically spelled English word (in situ/limes)


  • Use words for one to nine, but numbers from 10 upwards, except where this produces inconsistency within a sentence or short passage; in this case, use numbers throughout.
  • Commas should be used in thousands only from 10,000 (e.g. 3500; 23,840).
  • Spell out ‘percent’, reserving ‘%’ for lists and tables.
  • For measurements, use metric.

Chronological References

  • 1 May 1988 (no comma)
  • the nineteenth century (noun); nineteenth-century (adj.)
  • the 1960s
  • CE and BCE in small capitals; CE to precede and BCE to follow the date separated by a space, e.g. CE 1066, 4004 BCE.
  • radiocarbon-date format is e.g. 36,470±250 bp or 41,089 –41,978 cal. BP (OxA-15164)


  • Use and , not ‘ or “.
  • Long quotations are apart in smaller (font 11) italicized type, with quotation marks. Quotations within long quotations are indicated by single inverted commas.
  • Short quotations are indicated by double inverted commas.
  • Punctuation follows closing inverted comma, except exclamation mark and question mark belonging to the quotation, or a full stop if the quotation is or ends with a grammatically complete sentence beginning with a capital.
  • Bibliographical reference to the quotation follows the final punctuation if that punctuation belongs to the quote. The reference precedes the final punctuation mark if the mark does not belong to the quotation according to the above criteria (no. 4), e.g.:


Crediting sourcing

If figures are copied from another publication, acknowledgments must be made in the caption. Authors are responsible for obtaining any necessary permissions to reproduce copyrighted material (click here to download the Copyright Permissions Form Template). The following conventional designations should be noted:

“after” = possible redrafting but no change in information
“modified from” = some change
“adapted from” = radical changes
If no change is made to the figure, authors should reference only the source.  If the author holds rights to the figure, no credit is necessary.


In text:

  • EX NOVO uses the Harvard referencing system.
  • Works with the same authorship published in the same year should be indicated by ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. and should follow the date without intervening space, e.g. Edwards 1982a; Jones & Smith 1987a,b,c.
  • Do not use Ibid., op. cit. or similar expressions.

 At end:

  • References are grouped in author-alphabetical order at the end of the article.
  • Authors’ names should be in small caps.
  • Upper and lower case: article titles should be in lower case, plain text; book and journal titles should have main words capitalized and be in italics. Titles in languages other than English should retain the capitalization of the original language.
  • Page numbers should not be abbreviated. Use 223–271 rather than 223–71.
  • Page numbers are required within the reference for articles in journals and separate articles in books (see examples below).
  • States within publication location information should be in standard abbreviated form in round brackets, e.g. Albuquerque (NM): University of New Mexico Press; New York (NY): Academic Press, etc.
  • Journals do not need the place or publisher to be specified.
  • Punctuation: see examples in the Editorial Style Guidelines.
  • Author’s name(s) in small caps.

Click here to download the Editorial Style Guidelines